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Lesson 14

The Septuagint, written in Greek, uses the word “phosphoros” several times. Jerome correctly translated it into the Latin word Lucifer for his Vulgate translation. Using this definition when translating the Old Testament led to some unintended consequences for translators that followed him. Their problem was that Jerome used Lucifer in 2 Peter 1:19 where it clearly refers to Jesus, but in Isaiah 14:12 Lucifer refers to Satan. Should we use the same name to address our savior and Satan? Who might profit from such a name mixup? Most concordances and commentaries are based on one or maybe a few different Bible versions. Most were written by Europeans who had been influenced and taught for over a thousand years by Jerome’s Latin Vulgate version. Those translators recognised this discrepancy and sought to rectify it. But instead of finding a better translation for Heylal by using its Hebrew root words, most changed 2 Peter 1:19’s  correct translation of Lucifer. In its place they use an alias for Jesus that is found in Revelation 2:28 and 22:16. There Jesus is referred to as the morning star and day star. The English commentaries and concordances were written from existing versions that had already been written and accepted as true. Consequently those scholars listed, categorized and commented on the words they accepted within their chosen versions. Without using the internet, verifying this information could prove difficult as most English commentaries recognise Heylal as the name Lucifer, and Lucifer in 2 Peter as morning star. Searching the Latin Vulgate and Septuagint will give some collaboration but more verification is spread over many sources. How much research do you put into your beliefs? How do you think the Barieans proved what Paul told them was the truth? Do you think they used the Hebrew Old Testament or did they use the Greek Septuagint version? Which one would you search for proof, then and now? Why?

Latin Vulgate translation 2 Peter 1:19et habemus firmiorem propheticum sermonem cui bene facitis adtendentes quasi lucernae lucenti in caliginoso loco donec dies inlucescat et lucifer oriatur in cordibus vestris

2 Peter 1:19 New King James VersionAnd so we have the prophetic word confirmed, which you do well to heed as a light that shines in a dark place, until the day dawns and the morning star rises in your hearts;

Revelation 2:27-28 Expanded Bible27 ‘·You [L he; C the one who overcomes] will ·rule over [L shepherd] them with an iron ·rod [or scepter], ·as when pottery is broken into pieces [or and will break them into pieces like pottery;.’ 28 This is the same ·power [authority] I received from my Father. I will also give him the morning star [C usually the planet Venus as seen before sunrise, but here symbolically Christ at his return;

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